In this report for The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, Jeff Amrish Ritoe explores why the European Union needs to establish undisrupted supply chains of raw materials necessary for building clean energy systems. With little commercial mining and close to zero processing of critical minerals on its territory today, Europe finds itself in a vulnerable position. And although China is currently leading the field, it is becoming apparent that no economic power will be able to build its supply chains entirely by itself. How, then, will this New Great Game play out?
Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the editorial position of The Assay or 121 Group.